Flux & React Best Practices

So, you want to start a new javascript project using React, perhaps using the Flux architecture. Excellent! But you’re not quite sure where to begin. Well, actually, you know where to begin, but you’ve quickly hit a barrage of design questions. Should that API call go in the store, the view component, or the action creator? Should I store that data in a state or pass it down from a parent component through props? How should I update the view before I receive that ajax data? And so on.

Here are some helpful tips which can guide you along the way. I am no authority on React, so I have included references to those who are. Please leave a comment if you think there are better ways.

Components & State

Try to keep as many of your components as possible stateless.

A common pattern is to create several stateless components that just render data, and have a stateful component above them in the hierarchy that passes its state to its children via props.

State should contain data that a component’s event handlers may change to trigger a UI update.


Ajax APIs

In Flux, all ajax API calls should come from the action creators.

paraphrased from http://facebook.github.io/flux/docs/chat.html

In response, the API fires actions on success (eg. “receive data”) or failure (eg. “receive error”).

For example, ViewActionCreators.js:

// ViewActionCreators.js
var AppAPI = require('../apis/AppAPI');
var ViewActionCreators = {
  doSomething: function(something) {
      actionType: AppConstants.DO_SOMETHING,
      something: something
    // fire off API call


// AppAPI.js
// this example uses jQuery's ajax call
var ServerActionCreators = require('../actions/ServerActionCreators');
function post(url) {
  $.ajax({url: url
    success: function(data) {
    error: function(xhr, status, err) {
      ServerActionCreators.receiveAPIError({ err: err });


// ServerActionCreators.js
var ServerActionCreators = {
  receiveData: function(data) {
      actionType: AppConstants.RECEIVE_DATA,
      data: data
  receiveAPIError: function(err) {
      actionType: AppConstants.RECEIVE_API_ERROR,
      err: err

In this code, the user interacts with the view, which fires the DO_SOMETHING action. That action itself fires off the API call, and when the API call is done it sends either a RECEIVE_DATA or a RECEIVE_API_ERROR action, which the Store can listen for. (As we’ll see below, the Store may listen for DO_SOMETHING too.)

These snippets are based on the Flux demo Chat app.

It seems there is one exception to the rule that only Action Creators call the API: loading initial data. This can go directly in the view controller. See https://facebook.github.io/react/tips/initial-ajax.html for an example.


Stores should remain as independent and decoupled as possible — a self-contained universe that one can query from a Controller-View.
The only road into the Store is through the callback it registers with the Dispatcher. The only road out is through getter functions.
Stores also publish an event when their state has changed, so Controller-Views can know when to query for the new state, using the getters.


Stores should only execute synchronous code. Otherwise they are too hard to understand.



If you’re using Flux, you should start writing your stores using immutable-js.

If we also use immutable-js data structures to hold the components’ state, we could mix PureRenderMixin into all our components and short circuit the re-rendering process.


Here is how I’ve done it. In the Store, make changes like this:

var Immutable = require('immutable');
var selected = Immutable.List();  // was: var selected = [];
// ...
selected = selected.push(item);  // was: selected.push(item);
// ...
selected = selected.delete(i);   // was: selected.splice(i, 1);
// ...
// I receive a js array of js objects from the API
// and convert to immutable list of immutable maps: 
  var tmp = myArray.map(function(item) {
    return Immutable.Map(item);
  return Immutable.List(tmp);
// ...

In the Component, there are not many changes required – I don’t even require('immutable') in this example. The changes arise just because the objects returned by the Store are no longer plain old javascript objects, but immutable ones.

var React = require('react/addons');
var PureRenderMixin = React.addons.PureRenderMixin;

// no change needed state-setting function if it's like:
function getMyState() {
  return {
    a: MyStore.getSelected(),
    b: MyStore.getOther()

  mixins: [PureRenderMixin],      // add this
  // no change to these, eg.
    return getMyState();
  _onChange: function() {  // ChangeListener callback
  // ...
var num = this.state.a.count();  // was this.state.a.length 
// maybe other small changes due to API differences

Here is an example of the ToDo app rewritten with Flux and immutablejs.

The React documentation also refers to another immutability helper, update(). This uses ordinary Javascript objects, whereas immutablejs uses its own object types. I have decided to use immutablejs, but please tell me if you have a way to do it with update.

Optimistic Updates

While waiting for an ajax API to return, you often want to optimistically update the UI. I’ve settled on the following pattern to do this:

  • Optimistically update the Store. Do not bypass the store by only saving it in the component state.
  • This means you will update the same Store data twice: once based on the user action, and then again based on the received API action (or API error action).
  • If you need to know if the API action has completed, you can set another variable (eg. optimistic) to track that, along with a getter function that the component can listen for. I’m using this to display a spinner while some data loads.

I tried doing each of these on its own too, but then you either can’t easily update the view optimistically, or you get a messy chain of actions.

The potential downsides are:

  • There could be other reasons for the API actions being received
  • I’m not sure I want this store to know about the API-generated actions (though the alternative still needs the API error action)
  • What if an API call is not required, and the data comes from somewhere else?

Reacting to non-React events

Attach generic DOM events (eg. window resizing) to componentDidMount. This is well explained at http://facebook.github.io/react/tips/dom-event-listeners.html

In the window resizing example, note they do not attempt to keep the current window size in a Store. Instead, it is kept in the component’s state. It would be complicated to keep a Store synched up with window.innerWidth, which is anyway the ultimate truth here.

Other resources

Here are some resources that helped me get going:


Django & Angular overview

Angular is what HTML would have been if it had been designed for building web applications”

What problem does Angular solve?

It separates your javascript models, views and controllers – just like Django does for your server-side code.

It does so using “two-way data-binding”: whenever the model changes, the view changes as well – and vice versa.

Pros and Cons of Angular

Angular has a rich ecosystem of modules, eg. Ionic for mobile app development.

However, Angular 2 (to be released in 2015) will not be easily backwards compatible. Angular 1 may not be supported for much longer (18 months?).

Plenty of alternatives exist – check them out at ToDo MVC.

One that is gaining popularity is React – “a javascript library for building user interfaces”. Mark Finger has written a helpful package called django-react to make this easy to use in Django.

A quick Angular demo

Eg. see the code snippets on the Angular home page.

What tools make it easier to use with Django?


  • Django-angular – lots of useful utilities to help the two work together, especially around forms and template sharing; there is also support for ‘three-way’ data-binding (ie. the server detects when the client’s model changes – and the server can modify values on the client side without the client needing to poll).
  • Django REST framework or TastyPie – since your Django app’s API is now its main feature
  • Django-compressor or django-pipeline – because you will have dozens of little js files defining your Angular components


  • Grunt or gulp – to automate javascript necessities like minification, compilation, unit testing, linting, etc
  • Npm or bower – like pip install for your javascript packages
  • Angular has lots of modules you can add, eg. ngDialog and AngularUI
  • Don’t use the default angular router; ui-router is better.

And Yeoman – a “generator ecosystem” – although there is no django + angular generator yet.

What practices make it easier to use with Django?

This section derived from the excellent Thinkster tutorial Build Web Applications with Django and AngularJS.

Angular directory structure (in the project directory root):

  • /static/javascripts/<ng_app_name>.config.js
  • /static/javascripts/<ng_app_name>.js
  • /static/javascripts/<ng_app_name>.routes.js
  • /static/javascripts/<ng_module_name>/<ng_module_name>.module.js
  • /static/javascripts/<ng_module_name>/controllers/<controller_name>.controller.js, …
  • /static/javascripts/<ng_module_name>/directives/<directive_name>.directive.js, …
  • /static/javascripts/<ng_module_name>/services/<service_name>.service.js, …
  • /static/templates/<ng_module_name>/<ng_template_name>.html, …
  • /templates/<django_template_name>.html, …
  • /templates/javascripts.html


urlpatterns = patterns(
    url(r'^admin/', include(admin.site.urls)),
    url(r'^api/v1/', include(router.urls)),
    # pass everything else through to Angular
    url('^.*$', IndexView.as_view(), name='index'),


from django.views.decorators.csrf import ensure_csrf_cookie
from django.views.generic.base import TemplateView
from django.utils.decorators import method_decorator

class IndexView(TemplateView):
    template_name = 'index.html'

    def dispatch(self, *args, **kwargs):
       return super(IndexView,self).dispatch(*args,**kwargs)

Testing frameworks

There are many javascript testing frameworks available, eg. mocha and jasmine.

What problems have people had?

Please let me know!

Resources – Tutorials

What is this post anyway?

These are some questions for and notes from the SyDjango meetup on Angular in January 2015.


Curve fitting with javascript & d3

If javascript is up to amazing animations and visualizations with d3, maybe it’s up to non-linear curve fitting too, right?

Something like this, perhaps:

Here’s how I did it:

  • The hard work is done using Cobyla (“Constrained Optimization BY Linear Approximation”), which Anders Gustafsson ported to Java and Reinhard Oldenburg ported to Javascript, as per this stackoverflow post.
    Cobyla minimises a non-linear objective function subject to constraints.
  • The demo and its components (including cobyla) use the module pattern, which has the advantage of keeping the global namespace uncluttered.
  • To adapt Cobyla to this curve fitting problem, I wrote a short wrapper which is added onto the cobyla module as cobyla.nlFit(data, fitFn, start, min, max, constraints, solverParams). This function minimises the sum of squared differences (y1^2-y2^2) between the data points, (x,y1), and the fitted points, (x,y2).
  • The Weibull cumulative distribution function (CDF), inverse CDF and mean are defined in the “distribution” module. Thus distribution.weibull([2,1,5]) .inverseCdf(0.5) gives the median (50th percentile) of a Weibull distribution with shape parameter 2, scale parameter 1 and location parameter 5.
  • The chart is built with d3. I am building an open-source library of a few useful chart types, d3elements, which are added onto the d3 module as d3.elts. This one is called d3.elts.xyChart.
  • So the user interface doesn’t get jammed, I use a javascript web worker to calculate the curve fit. I was surprised how easy it was to set this up.
  • I apologise in advance that this sample code is quite complicated. If you see ways to make it simpler, please let me know.
  • Finally, this may be obvious, but I like the rigour that a tool like jshint imposes. Hence the odd comment at the top of fitdemo.js, /* global fitdemo: true, jQuery, d3, _, distribution, cobyla */

Check out the source code on bitbucket here.

Please let me know what you think!


D3 Time Series Chart with Zoom & Notes

This is an example of a reusable chart built using d3. The range (zoom) slider and the notes panel are also built in d3, as separate widgets, so they can be customized further.

Check the sample source code on bitbucket for the full description of how to use it; here is the essence (without notes):

    var rangeWidget = d3.elts.startEndSlider().minRange(365*24*3600*1000);
    var tsChart = d3.elts.timeSeriesChart().rangeWidget(rangeWidget);
    d3.csv('data.csv', function(data) {
        tsData = _.map(data, function(d) {return [d.date, d.price]});

To add notes to this, use:

    var rangeWidget = d3.elts.startEndSlider().minRange(365*24*3600*1000);
    var clickPanel = d3.elts.makeClickPanel();
    var tsChart = d3.elts.timeSeriesChart().rangeWidget(rangeWidget);
    tsChart.notesMarkerClick(function(elt, note, closer) {
        clickPanel(elt, note && ("<h3>"+note.title+"</h3><p>"+note.desc+"</p>")), closer);
    d3.csv('data.csv', function(data) {
        d3.csv('wheatNotes.csv', function(notes) {
            tsData = _.map(data, function(d) {return [d.date, d.price]});

Hope you find it useful!


Visualising Flows in a D3 Chord Diagram with Hover

This is an example of a reusable chart built using d3.

The idea is that you have a matrix of the flows between one category (here, optimist/neutral/pessimist) to another (introvert/extrovert). `d3.elts.flowChord()` then converts this matrix into a chord diagram, with the option of hover text.

Check the sample source code on bitbucket for the full description of how to use it; here is the essence:

  var colors = d3.scale.ordinal().range(["#AAA", "steelblue", "green", "orange", "brown"]);
  var hoverHtml = {'Introvert': '<h1>Introverts</h1>Like to be by themselves', 
      'Extrovert': '<h1>Extroverts</h1>Like the company of other people', 
      'Optimist': '<h1>Optimists</h1>Look on the bright side of life',
      'Neutral': '<h1>Neutrals</h1>Life could be good, it could be bad',
      'Pessimist': '<h1>Pessimists</h1>See the glass half empty'}
  var chordDiagram = d3.elts.flowChord().colors(colors).hoverHtml(hoverHtml).rimWidth(30);
  var data = [['Disposition','Optimist','Neutral','Pessimist'],
              ['Introvert', 0.8, 0.4, 0.67], 
              ['Extrovert', 0.2, 0.6, 0.33]]

D3 bar chart with zoom & hover

This is an example of a reusable chart built using d3. The range (zoom) slider is built in d3 too, as a separate widget, so it can be customized.

Check the sample source code on bitbucket for the full description of how to use it; here is the essence:

    var rangeWidget = d3.elts.startEndSlider().minRange(30);
    var myChart = d3.elts.barChart().rangeWidget(rangeWidget);
    myChart.mouseOver(function(el, d) { showHover(el, d) });
    myChart.mouseOut(function(el, d) { hideHover(el, d) });
    d3.csv('data.csv', function(data) {
        data = _.map(data, function(d) {return [d.id,d.price]});

Experience with Meteor

Meteor Day is upon us!

Here are the slides I am going to present on my experience developing with Meteor. In a nutshell -

  • Love the principles – they made it easy to develop a great webapp quickly
  • I’ve done a few cool things, I think! (like encryption, undo, admin panel with datatables, custom art:accounts-ui)
  • But… SEO is killing me (only two keywords showing!?)
  • The Paypal IPN has been a pain – still unresolved
  • Can’t escape the usual browser issues – and Iron Router adds a few for IE9
  • Speed has been an intermittent problem
  • Still feeling my way towards a good programming style
  • Please check out the app!
(Just click on the slide above and then you can advance through the deck using the arrow keys. Alternatively, click here to see them in a new tab.)

You can see the slides from the talk online here.


Harness your Python style to write good Javascript

Python encourages you to write good code. Javascript does not. How can you harness your Python style to write good Javascript?


Let’s try to write this Python code in Javascript.

class Vehicle(object):
    def __init__(self, size):
        self.size = size
    def __str__(self):
        return "Vehicle of size {0}".format(self.size)

class Hovercraft(Vehicle):
    def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
        # initialize just like a vehicle
        super(Hovercraft, self).__init__(*args, **kwargs)
        # add extra custom init if needed
    def hover(self, height):
        print("Hovering at height {0}".format(height))

# eg. make a new size 8 hovercraft
h = Hovercraft(8)
# eg. hover at height 12
# eg. change size and print
h.size = 9

Not obvious? The problem is that Javascript doesn’t have an out-of-the-box analogue to classes. Somehow we need to adapt objects and functions to the task.

Use prototypes

Your first thought might be to define new object types by defining object constructors, which are called with the new keyword, and adding methods to the object’s prototype chain. These objects look a lot like classes, don’t they? So you might write something like this:

// Not the best approach - see below
function Vehicle(size) {
    this.size = size;
    // or use this and arguments pseudo-arguments
Vehicle.prototype.toString = function () {
    return "Vehicle of size " + this.size;
function Hovercraft(size) {
    this.size = size;
Hovercraft.prototype = new Vehicle();
Hovercraft.prototype.hover = function (height) {
    alert("hovering at height "+height);

// eg. make a new size 8 hovercraft
h = new Hovercraft(8);
// eg. hover at height 12
// eg. change size and print
h.size = 9

This has a number of problems:

  • Vehicle and Hovercraft have the same constructor, but you can’t reuse it.
  • It feels strange to define the class’s methods outside the constructor, with the prototype lines.
  • There’s no room for private variables or methods.

Use closures

For a better solution, we need to think laterally – and use Javascript’s closures. I was hesitant to make use of these at first, thinking it would only lead to perverse and impenetrable code. But in fact they are a force for good, as we’ll see.

Put simply, a closure is a function which has variables bound to it. You write the closure as a function inside another function. The trick is that the inner function can refer to any of the outer function’s local variables. (Thanks for this succinct summary StackExchange!)

Here’s a nice example of a closure from a talk on functional programming given by Douglas Crockford, JavaScript architect at PayPal and formerly Yahoo (at 57mins). (In fact the previous example is from this talk too.) In this example, a closure is used to produce an object called singleton, which has a private variable, a private function, and two methods. You call the two methods as singleton.firstMethod(a,b) and singleton.secondMethod(c):

var singleton = (function () {
    var privateVariable;
    function privateFunction(x) {

    return {
        firstMethod: function (a, b) {
        secondMethod: function (c) {
}() );
// note the function is called immediately,
// so the var singleton is its returned value
// the surrounding brackets are just to help the reader

So let’s adapt that to our problem:

function vehicle(size) {
    var that = {
        size: size,
        toString: function () { 
            return "Vehicle of size " + this.size; 
    return that;
function hovercraft(size) {
    var that = vehicle(size);  // inherit from vehicle
    that.hover = function(height) { 
        alert("hovering at height "+height);
        return that; // optional - allows chaining
    return that;

// eg. make a new size 8 hovercraft
h = hovercraft(8);
// eg. hover at height 12
// eg. both at once using chaining
g = hovercraft(8).hover(12);
// eg. change size and print
h.size = 9

In the above, size is accessible to the world, just as it is in Python. But Javascript also lets us make it private:

function vehicle(size) {
    // can define private variables here
    // instead, here we use the fact that parameters are private
    return {
        toString: function () { 
            return "Vehicle of size " + size; 

In general, to make your own constructor function (eg. vehicle, hovercraft), you follow this recipe from the talk:

  1. Make an object
  2. Define (private) variables and functions
  3. Augment the object with methods (which have access to the privates above)
  4. Return the object

This pattern has a name: the module pattern. You’ll find a great writeup of it, and some ways to use it across multiple js files, in this post by Ben Cherry. He also points out the best way to handle dependencies, and to update existing variables.

Use chaining

In the example above, I have added the extra feature of “chaining”. In Python you have to put each effect on a separate line, eg.:

h.size = 9

But in Javascript you can potentially chain it all together into one, like so:


I first discovered the joy of chaining while using Mike Bostock’s super-powerful D3 library. He describes how to do it here – in fact, his description of how to write a reusable chart arrives at the same closure-based solution as we have, with the addition of getters and setters as below.

We made hover chain, but size do it doesn’t yet, as it’s a variable, not a function. Mike solves this by adding a getter/setter function for each public variable, which we could add like this:

function vehicle(startSize) {
    var size = startSize;
    var that = {
        toString: function () { 
            return "Vehicle of size " + size;
    // getter/setter functions
    that.size = function(_) {
        if (!arguments.length) return size;
        size = _;
        return that; // Q: would 'return this' work?
    return that;
// eg. this works now

Then h.size() returns (gets) the hovercraft h‘s size, and h.size(9) sets the size to 9.

Another benefit: the code never refers to this. That’s handy, because I find whenever I refactor code into smaller functions I get tripped up by the meaning of this changing.

You may also recognize such getters and setters from jQuery, where eg. $("body").text() returns the page body’s text, and $("body").text("eels") sets the body’s text to “eels”.

Still, as nice as chaining is, needing to add 5 lines of boilerplate code for every variable, with 3 references to the variable name that must be changed each time, is the sort of thing we became programmers to avoid.

To solve this, I am starting to put all the variables with getters and setters into a single object, eg. xt:

function vehicle(startSize) {
    var ext = {size: startSize};
    if (Object.keys) {
        var extKeys = Object.keys(ext);
    function toString() {
        return "Vehicle of size " + ext.size;
    return {
        toString: toString,
        get: function(name) {
            if (!arguments.length) return ext;
            return ext[name];
        set: function(name, val) {
            if (typeof extKeys!=="undefined" && extKeys.indexOf) {
                if (extKeys.indexOf(name)>=0) {
                    ext[name] = val;
                } else {
                    throw Error("Variable "+name+" not found");
            } else {
                // on browsers without Object.keys or indexOf,
                // don't check the name is valid
                ext[name] = val;
            return this;
// eg. these work

Don’t make it a global

Finally, you probably don’t want to have a new global called vehicle. It’s better to add it to another module, eg. RT (which may or may not already exist), as RT.vehicle. It might also depend on other modules, eg. the underscore (_) library. To do this, wrap the whole function in another closure!

if (typeof _ === 'undefined') { 
    throw new Error('Vehicle requires underscore') 
(function(RT, _) {
    function vehicle(startSize) { 
        ... // copy from above

    // attach vehicle to RT
    if (typeof RT==="undefined") {
        RT = {};
    RT.vehicle = vehicle;
    return RT;
}(typeof RT === "undefined" ? {} : RT, _));
// eg. make a new size 9 vehicle
v = RT.vehicle(9);

Too crazy?

In conclusion

Javascript’s closures give you access to some interesting programming patterns. Foremost among them, it lets you implement Python-style classes, with the added bonus of private variables and functions. And this is not just an academic gimmick that risks complicating your code in the real world: it is championed by the people who develop javascript, and it is used by jQuery and D3 among others. It helps you to write good, reusable code.

So – please let me know if you’ve used this pattern before, and whether my comparison to Python’s classes stacks up.

A final thought – perhaps it is wrong to compare Javascript to Python after all. Perhaps it is better compared to LISP!


Nicely format tables without using table-layout:fixed

I have recently helped to develop Signup Zone, a very handy app where people can easily create their own signup sheets and rosters. People have started using it for interesting purposes, including registering to help injured wildlife! And this has led to people entering in unexpected data, such as very long email addresses; and creating sheets with a lot of columns.

At its heart, the signup sheet is simply an HTML table such as this:

Date Name Contact email address
10/11/2014 Racing Tadpole racingtadpole@example.com

This table has the code:

            <th scope="col">Date</th>
            <th scope="col">Name</th>
            <th scope="col">Contact email address</th>
            <td>Racing Tadpole</th>

Since I don’t know in advance how to size the different columns, I actually really like the browser’s built-in ability to choose its own column widths.

However, the browser will not let any content spill outside a cell, and it only breaks words at white space. So if one user enters a long email address (or URL) into a cell, that column becomes very wide and the table either spills outside the page margins or looks unsightly – or both, like this:

Date Name Email
10/11/2014 Racing Tadpole racingtadpole@example.com
11/12/2014 Another Tadpole anotherracingtadpole@quitelong.verylong.superlong.megalong.example.com

Here are two solutions:

  • Use the new css command hyphens: auto. It won’t work in Opera, Chrome (!) or older browsers (eg. IE 9), and it can hyphenate too many words, but it looks ok, eg:
    Date Name Email
    10/11/2014 Racing Tadpole racingtadpole@example.com
    11/12/2014 Another Tadpole anotherracingtadpole@quitelong.verylong.superlong.megalong.example.com
  • Run some javascript to insert a “zero-width space” or an invisible soft hyphen in places where the offending text can break, eg. at the . or @ symbols. This gives you control over where the words break, eg:
    Date Name Email
    10/11/2014 Racing Tadpole racingtadpole@​example​.com
    11/12/2014 Another Tadpole anotherracingtadpole@​quitelong​.verylong​.superlong​.megalong​.example​.com

    However, if someone copies the email address it will also copy the invisible characters, which could cause trouble.

Here’s some javascript code to implement the second solution in Meteor:

<template name="example">
function htmlEscape(str) {
    return String(str).replace(/&/g, '&amp;')
            .replace(/</g, '&lt;')
            .replace(/>/g, '&gt;')
            .replace(/"/g, '&quot;')
            .replace(/'/g, '&#39;');

function myMarkup(str) {
    return String(str).replace(/@/g, '&#8203;@')
            .replace(/\./g, '&#8203;.')
            .replace(/\//g, '&#8203;/');

Template.example.email = function(){
    // suppose s is the string we want to show
    return myMarkup(htmlEscape(s));

The htmlEscape function is inspired by this Stack Overflow post. An alternative is to use Spacebars.SafeString.

Hope that’s helpful!


9 Lessons from PyConAU 2014

A summary of what I learned at PyCon AU in Brisbane this year. (Videos of the talks are here.)

1. PyCon’s code of conduct

Basically, “Be nice to people. Please.”

I once had a boss who told me he saw his role as maintaining the culture of the group.  At first I thought that seemed a strange goal for someone so senior in the company, but I eventually decided it was enlightened: a place’s culture is key to making it desirable, and making the work sustainable. So I like that PyCon takes the trouble to try to set the tone like this, when it would be so easy for a bunch of programmers to stay focused on the technical.

2. Django was made open-source to give back to the community

Ever wondered why a company like Lawrence Journal-World would want to give away its valuable IP as open source? In a “fireside chat” between Simon Willison (Django co-creator) and Andrew Godwin (South author), it was revealed that the owners knew that much of their CMS framework had been built on open source software, and they wanted to give back to the community. It just goes to show, no matter how conservative the organisation you work for, if you believe some of your work should be made open source, make the case for it.

3. There are still lots more packages and tools to try out

That lesson’s copied from my post last year on PyCon AU. Strangely this list doesn’t seem to be any shorter than last year – but it is at least a different list.

Things to add to your web stack -

  • Varnish – “if your server’s not fast enough, just add another”.  Apparently a scary scripting language is involved, but it can take your server from handling 50 users to 50,000. Fastly is a commercial service that can set this up for you.
  • Solr and elasticsearch are ways to make searches faster; use them with django-haystack.
  • Statsd & graphite for performance monitoring.
  • Docker.io

Some other stuff -

  • mpld3 – convert matplotlib to d3. Wow! I even saw this in action in an ipython notebook.
  • you can use a directed graph (eg using networkx) to determine the order of processes in your code

Here are some wider tools for bioinformaticians (if that’s a word), largely from Clare Sloggett’s talk -

  • rosalind.info – an educational tool for teaching bioinformatics algorithms in python.
  • nectar research cloud – a national cloud for Australian researchers
  • biodalliance – a fast, interactive, genome visualization tool that’s easy to embed in web pages and applications (and ipython notebooks!)
  • ensembl API – an API for genomics – cool!

And some other sciency packages -

  • Natural Language Toolkit NLTK
  • Scikit Learn can count words in docs, and separate data into training and testing sets
  • febrl – to connect user records together when their data may be incorrectly entered

One standout talk for me was Ryan Kelly’s pypy.js, implementing a compliant and fast python in the browser entirely in javascript. The only downside is it’s 15 Mb to download, but he’s working on it!

And finally, check out this alternative to python: Julia, “a high-level, high-performance dynamic programming language for technical computing”, and Scirra’s Construct 2, a game-making program for kids (Windows only).

4. Everyone loves IPython Notebook

I hadn’t thought to embed javascript in notebooks, but you can. You can even use them collaboratively through Google docs using Jupyter‘s colaboratory. You can get a table-of-contents extension too.

5. Browser caching doesn’t have to be hard

Remember, your server is not just generating html – it is generating an http response, and that includes some headers like “last modified”, “etag”, and “cache control”. Use them. Django has decorators to make it easy. See Mark Nottingham’s tutorial. (This from a talk by Tom Eastman.)

6. Making your own packages is a bit hard

I had not heard of wheels before, but they replace eggs as a “distributable unit of python code” – really just a zip file with some meta-data, possibly including operating-system-dependent binaries. Tools that you’ll want to use include tox (to run tests in lots of different environments); sphinx (to auto-generate your documentation) and then ReadTheDocs to host your docs; check-manifest to make sure your manifest.in file has everything it needs; and bumpversion so you don’t have to change your version number in five different places every time you update the code.

If you want users to install your package with “pip install python-fire“, and then import it in Python with “import fire“, then you should name your enclosing folder python_fire, and inside that you should have another folder named fire. Also, you can install this package while you are testing it by cding to the python-fire directory and typing pip install -e . (note the final full-stop; the -e flag makes it editable).

Once you have added a LICENSE, README, docs, tests, MANIFEST.insetup.py and optionally a setup.cfg (to the python-fire directory in the above example) and you have pip installed setuptoolswheel and twine, you run both

python setup.py bdist_wheel [--universal]
python setup.py sdist

The bdist version produces a binary distribution that is operating-system-specific, if required the universal flag says it will run on all operating systems in both Python 2 and Python 3). The sdist version is a source distribution.

To upload the result to pypi, run

twine upload dist/*

(This from a talk by Russell Keith-Magee.)  Incidentally, piprot is a handy tool to check how out-of-date your packages are. Also see the Hitchhiker’s Guide to Packaging.

7. Security is never far from our thoughts

This lesson is also copied from last year’s post. If you offer a free service (like Heroku), some people will try to abuse it. Heroku has ways of detecting potentially fraudulent users very quickly, and hopes to open source them soon. And be careful of your APIs which accept data – XML and YAML in particular have scary features which can let people run bad things on your server.

8. Database considerations

Some tidbits from Andrew Godwin’s talk (of South fame)…

  • Virtual machines are slow at I/O, so don’t put your database on one – put your databases on SSDs. And try not to run other things next to the database.
  • Setting default values on a new column takes a long time on a big database. (Postgres can add a NULL field for free, but not MySQL.)
  • Schema-less (aka NoSQL) databases make a lot of sense for CMSes.
  • If only one field in a table is frequently updated, separate it out into its own table.
  • Try to separate read-heavy tables (and databases) from write-heavy ones.
  • The more separate you can keep your tables from the start, the easier it will be to refactor (eg. shard) later to improve your database speed.

9. Go to the lightning talks

I am constantly amazed at the quality of the 5-minute (strictly enforced) lightning talks. Russell Keith-Magee’s toga provides a way to program native iOS, Mac OS, Windows and linux apps in python (with Android coming). (Keith has also implemented the constraint-based layout engine Cassowary in python, with tests, along the way.) Produce displays of lightning on your screen using the von mises distribution and amazingly quick typing. Run python2 inside python3 with sux (a play on six).  And much much more…

Finally, the two keynotes were very interesting too. One was by Katie Cunningham on making your websites accessible to all, including people with sight or hearing problems, or dyslexia, or colour-blindness, or who have trouble with using the keyboard or the mouse, or may just need more time to make sense of your site. Oddly enough, doing so tends to improve your site for everyone anyway (as Katie said, has anyone ever asked for more flashing effects on the margins of your page?). Examples include captioning videos, being careful with red and green (use vischeck), using aria, reading the standards, and, ideally, having a text-based description of any graphs on the site, like you might describe to a friend over the phone. Thinking of an automated way to do that last one sounds like an interesting challenge…

The other keynote was by James Curran from the University of Sydney on the way in which programming – or better, “computational thinking” – will be taught in schools. Perhaps massaging our egos at a programming conference, he claimed that computational thinking is “the most challenging thing that people do”, as it requires managing a high level of complexity and abstraction. Nonetheless, requiring kindergarteners to learn programming seemed a bit extreme to me – until he explained at that age kids would not be in front of a computer, but rather learning “to be exact”. For example, describing how to make a slice of buttered bread is essentially an algorithm, and it’s easy to miss all the steps required (like opening the cupboard door to get the bread). If you’re interested, some learning resources include MIT’s scratch, alice (using 3D animations), grok learning and the National Computer Science School (NCSS).

All in all, another excellent conference – congratulations to the organisers, and I look forward to next year in Brisbane again.


Mathematical web apps & visualisation